The Boolean retrieval model contrasts with ranked retrieval models such as the vector space model (Section 6.3 ), in which users largely use free text queries , that is, just typing one or more words rather than using a precise language with operators for building up query expressions, and the system decides which documents best satisfy the query. Despite decades of academic research on the advantages of ranked retrieval, systems implementing the Boolean retrieval model were the main or only search option provided by large commercial information providers for three decades until the early 1990s (approximately the date of arrival of the World Wide Web). However, these systems did not have just the basic Boolean operations (AND, OR, and NOT) which we have presented so far. A strict Boolean expression over terms with an unordered results set is too limited for many of the information needs that people have, and these systems implemented extended Boolean retrieval models by incorporating additional operators such as term proximity operators. A proximity operator is a way of specifying that two terms in a query must occur close to each other in a document, where closeness may be measured by limiting the allowed number of intervening words or by reference to a structural unit such as a sentence or paragraph.
Worked example. Commercial Boolean searching: Westlaw.westlaw
Westlaw (http://www.westlaw.com/) is the largest commercial legal search service (in terms of the number of paying subscribers), with over half a million subscribers performing millions of searches a day over tens of terabytes of text data. The service was started in 1975. In 2005, Boolean search (called ``Terms and Connectors'' by Westlaw) was still the default, and used by a large percentage of users, although ranked free text querying (called ``Natural Language'' by Westlaw) was added in 1992. Here are some example Boolean queries on Westlaw:
Information need: Information on the legal theories involved in preventing the disclosure of trade secrets by employees formerly employed by a competing company. Query: "trade secret" /s disclos! /s prevent /s employe!
Information need: Requirements for disabled people to be able to access a workplace.
Query: disab! /p access! /s work-site work-place (employment /3 place)
Information need: Cases about a host's responsibility for drunk guests.
Query: host! /p (responsib! liab!) /p (intoxicat! drunk!) /p guest
Note the long, precise queries and the use of proximity operators, both uncommon in web search. Submitted queries average about ten words in length. Unlike web search conventions, a space between words represents disjunction (the tightest binding operator), & is AND and /s, /p, and / ask for matches in the same sentence, same paragraph or within words respectively. Double quotes give a phrase search (consecutive words); see Section 2.4 (page ). The exclamation mark (!) gives a trailing wildcard query wildcard; thus liab! matches all words starting with liab. Additionally work-site matches any of worksite, work-site or work site; see Section 2.2.1 (page ). Typical expert queries are usually carefully defined and incrementally developed until they obtain what look to be good results to the user.
Many users, particularly professionals, prefer Boolean query models. Boolean queries are precise: a document either matches the query or it does not. This offers the user greater control and transparency over what is retrieved. And some domains, such as legal materials, allow an effective means of document ranking within a Boolean model: Westlaw returns documents in reverse chronological order, which is in practice quite effective. In 2007, the majority of law librarians still seem to recommend terms and connectors for high recall searches, and the majority of legal users think they are getting greater control by using them. However, this does not mean that Boolean queries are more effective for professional searchers. Indeed, experimenting on a Westlaw subcollection, Turtle (1994) found that free text queries produced better results than Boolean queries prepared by Westlaw's own reference librarians for the majority of the information needs in his experiments. A general problem with Boolean search is that using AND operators tends to produce high precision but low recall searches, while using OR operators gives low precision but high recall searches, and it is difficult or impossible to find a satisfactory middle ground. End worked example.
In this chapter, we have looked at the structure and construction of a basic inverted index, comprising a dictionary and postings lists. We introduced the Boolean retrieval model, and examined how to do efficient retrieval via linear time merges and simple query optimization. In dictionaryranking-ir-system we will consider in detail richer query models and the sort of augmented index structures that are needed to handle them efficiently. Here we just mention a few of the main additional things we would like to be able to do:
With these additional ideas, we will have seen most of the basic technology that supports ad hoc searching over unstructured information. Ad hoc searching over documents has recently conquered the world, powering not only web search engines but the kind of unstructured search that lies behind the large eCommerce websites. Although the main web search engines differ by emphasizing free text querying , most of the basic issues and technologies of indexing and querying remain the same, as we will see in later chapters. Moreover, over time, web search engines have added at least partial implementations of some of the most popular operators from extended Boolean models: phrase search is especially popular and most have a very partial implementation of Boolean operators. Nevertheless, while these options are liked by expert searchers, they are little used by most people and are not the main focus in work on trying to improve web search engine performance.